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Immigration Voices: “Gambling on Immigration at a Dangerous Intersection (Merry Christmas, Ninja Squirrel!)”
[Blogger's Note: Today we have a dandy guest post from the ever insightful, prolific and droll, Nici Kersey. Don't be put off by her introductory paragraphs. There's an immigration gem awaiting -- one that employers, and the lawyers who counsel them, will not want to miss.]
Gambling on Immigration at a Dangerous Intersection(Merry Christmas, Ninja Squirrel!)
By Nicole (Nici) Kersey
I run several days a week on the Air Force base where I’ve lived for the past 18 months. I prefer to run on River Road, which has a river on one side and a golf course on the other and which leads from my house to a prison. (Apparently, prisons and military bases are frequently co-located, perhaps in part because of the need for cheap labor to take care of golf courses, which are also frequently located on Air Force bases.) Here are some things I have learned on these runs:
People will try to hit you with golf balls. They will find this funny. They are probably drunk and are unlikely to hit you, but it will be unnerving, and you will learn to avoid the golf course area during the drunkest hours.Signs warning you about alligators will, at first, cause you to run your fastest miles in years. Over time, you will begin to slow, hoping to actually see some evidence that alligators once inhabited the earth. You will see a snake one day, and that is as exciting as your wildlife encounters will be.Until the day you see a meerkat, which you will chase and photograph. But then you will figure out that it was just an Eastern Fox squirrel, which is basically a larger-than-normal squirrel wearing a ninja mask.The inmates will, at first, have an effect similar to the alligator signs, causing you to run faster and carry mace. Over time, you will realize that they have little interest in you, and they are prohibited from even speaking to you. You will eventually just wave hello to the prisoners and start to concoct wild plans for how you can help them escape from jail.Two things that you will never get used to: running behind an active firing range. (This will always make you run very, very fast.) Ditto: running under a C-130 that is landing. You will manage to be within 20 yards of the end of the runway at least twice, and both times, you will nearly soil yourself.Every now and then, your normal running trail will be closed due to “explosive dog training.” Causing you to wonder how, exactly, one trains a dog to explode and, if you succeed, why you even bothered with the training.
Okay, okay. I’m supposed to write about immigration, right? Here goes: when I run 4 or
more miles, I come to an intersection that used to cause anxiety: turn left, you enter the federal prison; turn right, and signs warn you of alligators; turn around, and you have to run back through the golf course where the drunk people tried to hit you with balls.
Employers who are trying to decide whether to conduct a voluntary I-9 audit today face a similar intersection. Turn left, they risk entering the federal prison in a way more “official” way; turn right, and they may lose valuable employees who are eligible for work authorization which simply hasn’t been granted yet. (In this metaphor, the employees are getting gobbled up by the alligators. Get it?)
Previously, employers deciding whether to undergo an audit needed to consider several factors. Among them: the cost of the audit, the risk that would be eliminated by the audit, whether the employer could take the time to correct violations discovered, and whether the business could survive the loss of any employees determined to lack employment authorization. The new executive order adds a twist. A number of employees who do not hold work authorization today may obtain employment authorization within the next 12-24 months. This raises the question of whether now is the right time to conduct an audit.
If an employer discovers today that Bob presented fake documents when he was hired, and the employer confronts Bob, and Bob admits that his documents were fake and that he is not authorized to work, the employer must terminate Bob’s employment. If Bob says he is not work-authorized today, but he is eligible for DAPA under the new executive order, the employer still must terminate Bob’s employment, even though – if the employer had waited a year to conduct the audit and confront Bob – Bob’s fate could have been much different.
So the question becomes whether employers would be wise – or kind – to wait until the new batch of DACA/DAPA beneficiaries have obtained employment authorization prior to conducting a voluntary audit.
If the employer waits a year or so, it can clean up its I-9s without the loss of as many valuable employees. But if the employer waits a year or so and is, in the interim, inspected by ICE, the employer may face hefty fines and – in the most egregious situations – a prison sentence.
And it has become abundantly clear that ICE is not “chilling out” until the new batch of DACA and DAPA employment authorization cards are issued. (ICE isn’t even chilling for the holidays, having issued Notices of Inspection this week.) Who is most likely to be inspected? Employers in “critical infrastructure” are high on ICE’s priority list. It also seems that employers who were previously inspected and issued a Warning Notice are high on the list, as are employers referred to ICE after an investigation by another agency (DOL, OSC, USCIS). And those employers who are suspected of hiring unauthorized workers – knowingly or unknowingly – are at high risk of an inspection. Employers at higher risk of inspections may not be wise to gamble by waiting to conduct an audit.
Employers may also consider geography in assessing their vulnerability. Those in California are less likely to be fined for I-9 violations than those in Illinois (see page 7).
So I understand the inclination to wait so that you can avoid the “alligators” that will gobble up your valuable employees. But to avoid the alligators, you have to run through the golf course and risk being hit. If you’re lucky, you’ll see a ninja squirrel or a tiny green snake. If you’re not lucky, you may have to run through the prison yard, and not in a fun way.
Wait a second … this was supposed to be a holiday-themed blog post? Yikes. Okay. So, one day I was running on River Road and listening to Vampire Weekend (for the purposes of this post, we are going to say that the song was “Holiday”) when an unidentifiable liquid dropped from a tree directly into my eye. I became convinced that a squirrel peed in my eye. The best thing to do when you think a squirrel has peed in your eye is ask your Facebook friends for advice. They will call you Chicken Little, and your eye will be fine. And if you still don’t feel like this post was holiday-y enough, here’s a gift: an annotated Form I-9 to help keep you out of trouble. Merry Christmas!
 “Critical infrastructure” is defined by ICE to include Agriculture/Food, Banking/Finance, Chemical, Commercial Facilities, Communications, Critical Manufacturing, Dams, Defense Industrial Base, Emergency Services, Energy, Government Facilities, Healthcare/Public Health, Information Technology, National Monuments/Icons, Nuclear Reactors, Materials/Waste, Postal/Shipping, Transportation Systems, and Water.
 But some employers in California are considering conducting self audits on an expedited basis so that they can terminate employees who lied at the time of hire about their employment authorization. (Such terminations based on dishonesty may not be allowed if the employees have gained employment authorization under a law that took effect early this year.)
Updated 12-22-2014 at 12:07 PM by APaparelli
[Blogger's note; Probably the most gratifying element of practicing immigration law is watching clients flourish. Obtaining immigration benefits, especially lawful permanent residency, often unleashes a wave of innovation and creativity. Less often, it produces a humanitarian "pay it forward" moment. This is the story of today's guest blogger, Protima Pandey. Many years ago, I represented a technology company that asked me to help Protima's husband obtain an H-1B visa and a green card, and obtain H-4 dependent visa status and lawful permanent residence for her as well. Unbeknownst to me, she had chosen law as a career, and with the work permit that pending green card status afforded, she began a stint as a lawyer in private practice. Soon after obtaining residency, she followed her dream and became a public interest immigration lawyer. Today, she is a Staff Attorney with Bay Area Legal Aid, helping the impoverished, abused and desperate obtain redress and immigration benefits. Protima is helping "pay it forward" by telling us the story of "Tanya" and "Rose," whose names are changed to honor their privacy. Protima's is only one of example of how the forthcoming final rule on H-4 spousal employment authorization will benefit America. I am pleased to report, moreover, that Protima is very happy in her work; you could be happy too.]
Out of the Shadows — U Nonimmigrant Visa Status:
Creating Safer Communities and Bringing Justice for All
By Protima Pandey
When Tanya found out that her daughter Rose was being sexually assaulted by her father, Mauricio, Tanya’s world collapsed. All these years Tanya looked at Rose’s mood swings, flashes of anger and refusal to go to school as behavior typical of pre-teen and adolescent girls. But after Rose revealed what her father was doing to her for 7 years in a row, Tanya went numb. Even more distressing was the fact that her father told Rose categorically and continuously that she would be punished if she ever told anyone about what was happening.
On the day that Tanya learned of this, she called Mauricio at work and told him to come home immediately. She then gathered her other two children, and gently prodded them about their life with their father. Relieved not to hear them repeat the stories that Rose told her, Tanya waited for Mauricio to return. He never came. Instead, she received a call from a relative overseas that Mauricio had returned home saying Tanya was unfaithful and that he left her.
Why is this story relevant on a blog that talks about immigrants and the law? Because this is a story of a family that lived “under the shadow,” to quote President Obama, for years, trying to make a life in America. Because this is the story of a family that had a deep, dark and dirty secret, one which included believing that the laws in this country do not apply to those who are undocumented. Because this is a story of a family that the United States of America decided should not be allowed to suffer in silence while they were being victimized by a crime punishable under the laws of this country.
U nonimmigrant status (popularly known as the U visa) was created by the Victims of Trafficking and Violence Prevention Act, enacted in October 2000. The law addresses the plight of aliens who have been exploited, victimized, and abused, but do not have legal status in the U.S., and therefore may be reluctant for fear of removal to help in the investigation or prosecution of criminal activity. The existence of U status provides law enforcement officials a means to help support the legalization of immigration status of undocumented crime victims who assist during investigations or prosecutions of criminal activity. U status provides temporary immigration benefits to certain victims of crimes who assist law enforcement officials in investigating and prosecuting those crimes.
In passing this legislation, Congress intended to strengthen the ability of law enforcement agencies to detect, investigate, and prosecute cases of domestic violence, sexual assault, trafficking of persons, and other criminal activity of which undocumented people are victims, while offering protection to victims of such offenses in keeping with the humanitarian interests of the United States. The maximum number of U status applications that can be approved in any one year is 10,000 for principal petitioners.
Tanya’s story is one of several thousands of victims and families who live in silence and suffer indignities that are crimes in the U.S. all because they feel their lives are not counted the same way as are documented people’s lives. By December 2013, USCIS has granted close to 50,000 U visas to victims of qualifying crimes such as Tanya. The most important aspect of this relief is that the goal of the visa is to permit those who qualify to live temporarily in the U.S. with U status.
However, the reality in the lives of the Tanyas in our country is that they often do not know that such relief exists or that they could qualify for this relief. Victims rarely reach out to law enforcement because they fear that their status somehow makes them ineligible for help — a common misunderstanding among undocumented. A report released in 2013 cited by the website Think Progress stated that among the Latinos surveyed (4,000 according to this report), Seventy per cent of the undocumented surveyed said they would not call the police to report being a victim of crime or a witness to a crime. Anecdotal evidence from colleagues and my own clients confirms this practice. If the crime victim speaks a language other than English, there is added fear that s/he will not get help if they dial 911. It is therefore important for law enforcement and community-based agencies alike to create mechanisms for outreach, assistance and referrals for crime victims who could qualify for these protections.
Tanya called the police to report the crimes that Rose had suffered. Especially since Tanya knew Mauricio had run away, she knew that at this time she had to take a step forward to protect not just Rose, but all her children. The police referred her to Bay Area Legal Aid for legal assistance, where I am a staff attorney. Tanya was low income (below 125% Federal Poverty Guidelines) and qualified for free legal assistance as a victim of crime.
Among other requirements, an applicant for U status, apart from being a victim of an eligible crime and cooperating in the investigation of that crime, s/he must ask a law enforcement agency or official to complete a certification form confirming that the applicant “has been helpful, is being helpful, or is likely to be helpful” in the investigation or prosecution of the criminal activity.” The issuance of this certification is a critical step that has to be completed before the applicant can file for relief under this special category of non-immigrant status. USCIS offers a guide to practitioners and certifying agencies which contains valuable guidance on the process of obtaining certification. According to the guide the certifying agency can be:
Federal, State and local law
enforcement agencies;prosecutor’s offices;judges;family protective services;Equal Employment Opportunity commission;Federal and State Department of Labor; andOther investigative agencies.
Community-based agencies can liaise with local agencies that investigate, prosecute qualifying crimes to determine if there is a certification process available. Some agencies, such as the California Dept. of Fair Employment and Housing post their certification process, while others require attorneys or petitioners to inquire with of staff regarding certification procedures.
Another aspect of this form of relief is that a petitioner who qualifies for a U visa can also petition for derivative family members. For petitioners who are 21 and older, this means minor children and/or non-abusive spouses. For petitioners who are 21 or younger this means minor children, a non-abusive spouse, siblings under the age of 18, and parents.
We obtained certification for Tanya as a victim of a qualifying crime because it was her care, love and encouragement that allowed Rose to report the heinous crimes she had been suffering and because as a parent of a victim, Tanya is considered an indirect victim of the crime. Tanya helped law enforcement track Mauricio down in his home country and extradite him. Because Tanya was able to obtain certification as a victim of a qualifying crime, our office filed for U status relief for her, and her children were included on the application as derivative family members.
Since our office represents victims with several different legal issues, Tanya asked us to assist her in obtaining a divorce and sole custody of all her children. Working with local law enforcement, we were able to serve the summons and complaint for divorce on Mauricio and obtain a divorce decree with sole legal and sole physical custody of the children awarded to Tanya. We also informed Tanya that her family could qualify for healthcare so that her family could get assistance with therapy and rehabilitation for their trauma.
Once Tanya and her children were granted status, they were all issued Employment Authorization Documents (EADs), a benefit conferred by the regulations that govern this type of relief. Because Mauricio no longer lived with the family and could not support them because he had been deported shortly after sentencing, Tanya carried all the burden of financially supporting her children. With the EAD card, she found stable employment, was able to enroll her oldest child in community college for apprenticeship (she feared he would not be able to do much after high school since she worried that colleges might require “papers” that document the immigration status of applicants before admissions) and has encouraged her two younger children to work hard in school so they can have a future for themselves.
Tanya’s story won’t end here. The visa she and her family have is good for four years. After three years of living in the U.S. and maintaining their U status, Tanya and her children can qualify to adjust their status to that of a lawful permanent residents (LPR). A holder of U status like Tanya will have to file for adjustment showing that s/he has remained in the U.S. and has not unreasonably refused to cooperate with law enforcement in the investigation of the qualifying crime that made her/him eligible for this relief in the first place. The application to adjust status must contain documentation proving continuous presence.
In the case of Tanya, it could be in the form of tax returns for the three qualifying years, school records to show the children maintained residency and any other documents with her name and address like pay stubs, utility bills and other mail. Tanya and her children must show USCIS that approval is warranted by requesting exercise of favorable discretion on humanitarian grounds, including the need to keep the family together. Any additional information, like the therapy that Tanya, Rose and the other children in the family are receiving to recover from the trauma they suffered because of this crime, any long standing community relationships that the family has built which serves as their support system and any activities that demonstrates participation in their local community as part of daily life like church or voluntary service are all relevant pieces of evidence that will help USCIS grant LPR status to Tanya and her children.
With the law in place for undocumented crime victims to receive relief, the key issue remains outreach and assistance to the families and beneficiaries of this relief. Community-based agencies and legal aid agencies work in tandem with law enforcement and domestic violence services agencies to connect those who qualify for this help with those of us who can help them. In Tanya’s case the pieces fell together for her to free her child from the years of victimization. However, there remain many barriers that prevent other families and individuals from being helped.
One major barrier is the lack of adequate legal assistance to reach all those who qualify for help. The Legal Services Corporation in its 2012 Pro Bono Task force report found that almost 50% of the population that needs legal assistance is unable to get help because the current legal services agencies lack resources to assist all who qualify.
Studies show that the service provided to victims of crime contributes to public safety enhancement helps children and families and allows for victims of crime to receive protections under the law. The availability of legal services for victims has likewise been shown to significantly reduce the likelihood that an individual woman is battered. Moreover, statistics from the Board of Immigration Appeals show that about 41% of litigants lack legal representation.
Studies show that the service provided to victims of crime contributes to public safety enhancement helps children and families and allows for victims of crime to receive protections under the law. The availability of legal services for victims has likewise been shown to significantly reduce the likelihood that an individual woman is battered. Moreover, statistics from the Board of Immigration Appeals show that about 41% of litigants lack legal representation.
If you are an individual who can give to low income, unserved communities, if you speak a language other than English, if you are a lawyer who has spare time to help (Bay Area Legal Aid always welcomes pro bono volunteers), if you are looking for a resolution to make as you enter the New Year, this is your chance to consider a worthy cause, a deserving population and a satisfying deed. As a career legal aid lawyer, I am an advocate at heart, so I am reaching out to ask for help for families who are silently suffering, who can get help and who can turn around their life. The happiest moments of my job are when clients show appreciation for our work, show us results like a job or a school admission because they were able to break free from the cycle of oppression or violence or when they say their last resort, us, turned out to be the one they should have come to in the first place.
 It was later amended by the Violence Against Women Act, 2005, the Trafficking Victims Protection Reauthorization Act, 2008 and the Violence Against Women Act, 2013.
 See generally: http://www.uscis.gov/humanitarian/vi...migrant-status . Also see, Bay Area Legal Aid: Immigration Relief for Victims of Domestic Violence, Sexual Assault and Other Serious Crimes: U Visa, VAWA & I-751 Waivers MANUAL (January 2011). Page 10-11.
 See Generally Sally Konoshita, et all, The U visa: Obtaining Status for Immigrant victims of crime, Immigration Legal Resource Center, 4th Ed., 2014, 1-1.
 There are many qualifying crimes covered by this relief, this post uses sexual assault as an example to illustrate the benefit. See for example http://www.sfweekly.com/sanfrancisco...nt?oid=2180863
 http://thinkprogress.org/immigration...report-crimes/ See also http://newamericamedia.org/2014/05/n...the-police.php
 Find out more about Bay Area Legal Aid as well as how to volunteer as a pro bono attorney or donate to our work at www.baylegal.org. Assistance and information are also available from the Office of the USCIS Ombudsman. The Ombudsman, Maria Odom, serves as Chair of the Department of Homeland Security’s Blue Campaign, a unified effort to combat human trafficking. In collaboration with law enforcement, government, and non-governmental partners, the Blue Campaign works to educate the public about how traffickers operate, where help is available to victims, and the importance of a victim-centered approach to combating human trafficking.
 See Generally INA § 101(a)(15)(U); INA § 214(p) and regulations found at 8 CFR §§ 212.17, 214.14 . See also In re Petitioner (name redacted), No. EAC 09 080 50515, 2010 WL 4088659 (Administrative Appeals Unit, March 3, 2010) for specifics on evidence of the direct and immediate harm that the petitioner has suffered as a result of the qualifying crime.
 The certification must be obtained on the I-918B form that the practitioner or petitioner must complete and send to the certifying agency. It is always best practice to approach the agency and determine their preferences for issuing a certification, including what additional documentation they might require to be able to certify favorably. Keep in mind however that you should only disclose information that your client has issued a release for, in order to ensure you are not violating any attorney-client privilege.
 INA § 101 (a)(15)(U)(ii).
 Tanya and her children entered the U.S. without inspection and therefore had to submit an additional request to the USCIS to seek relief and pardon for having entered without papers using the form I-192. Being low income, USCIS approved the family for a fee waiver of any filing fee associated with this waiver; there is no fee for the U visa application or fingerprinting.
 8 C.F.R. § 274a.12 (a)(19-20). The principle applicant does not have to submit a separate request for the employment authorization but the derivatives can submit I-765 for this concurrently with their U derivative petitions.
 8 CFR § 245.24
 8 CFR § 245.24 (10)
 See also 8 CFR § 245.24 (11) which contains information on how to address adverse factors, if any, that may prevent favorable discretion, including pleading extreme hardship and exceptional circumstances.
Updated 12-16-2014 at 02:08 PM by APaparelli
Worksite Harmony and the President’s Executive Actions: It’s All about Immigration Timing
“Politics at bottom is not all that complicated. It’s all about timing.”
Facing a recalcitrant House of Representatives controlled by Republicans, President Obama made an historic announcement on November 20th outlining an array of executive actions he would take to fix as much as he could of our broken immigration system.
Understandably, public and media attention since then has focused on the four to five million people who soon may come out from hiding in plain sight. Parents of citizens and permanent residents, and an expanded class of DREAMers, will be given deferred action and work and travel permits. U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) is now preparing to accept and decide a flood of new applications, all of which will be funded by user fees. But this won’t happen for up to six months.
Meantime, a dispute has arisen among Republicans about whether Congress has the power to prohibit USCIS from processing deferred action cases by starving the agency of funds. The House Appropriations Committee maintained in a statement that the Congress is powerless to prevent USCIS from financing the cost of implementing the deferred action program and according benefits through user fees:
The primary agency for implementing the President’s new immigration executive order is the U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS). This agency is entirely self-funded through the fees it collects on various immigration applications. Congress does not appropriate funds for any of its operations, including the issuance of immigration status or work permits, with the exception of the ‘E-Verify’ program. Therefore, the Appropriations process cannot be used to ‘de-fund’ the agency. The agency has the ability to continue to collect and use fees to continue current operations, and to expand operations as under a new Executive Order, without needing legislative approval by the Appropriations Committee or the Congress, even under a continuing resolution or a government shutdown.
Senator Jeff Sessions (R-AL) disagrees and is reportedly brandishing a Congressional Research Service (CRS) opinion letter described, but not released, by the far right blog, Breitbart, which suggests that Congress can bar appropriated funds, including user fees, from being deployed in a way that contravenes a statute. The actual CRS report, available here, provides:
A fee-funded agency or activity typically refers to one in which the amounts appropriated by Congress for that agency or activity are derived from fees collected from some external source. Importantly, amounts received as fees by federal agencies must still be appropriated by Congress to that agency in order to be available for obligation or expenditure by the agency. In some cases, this appropriation is provided through the annual appropriations process. In other instances, it is an appropriation that has been enacted independently of the annual appropriations process (such as a permanent appropriation in an authorizing act). In either case, the funds available to the agency through fee collections would be subject to the same potential restrictions imposed by Congress on the use of its appropriations as any other type of appropriated funds. (Footnote omitted; emphasis added.)
The CRS report did not mention, however, that the Immigration and Nationality Act (INA) already contains “a permanent appropriation in an authorizing act,” INA § 286(m), 8 U.S. Code § 1356(m), which states in relevant part:
Immigration examinations fee account.–Notwithstanding any other provisions of law, all adjudication fees as are designated by the Attorney General in regulations shall be deposited as offsetting receipts into a separate account entitled “Immigration Examinations Fee Account” in the Treasury of the United States, whether collected directly by the Attorney General or through clerks of courts: Provided, however, . . . That fees for providing adjudication and naturalization services may be set at a level that will ensure recovery of the full costs of providing all such services, including the costs of similar services provided without charge to asylum applicants or other immigrants. Such fees may also be set at a level that will recover any additional costs associated with the administration of the fees collected. (Emphasis added.)
According to a former senior Executive Branch official who helped me confirm the government’s interpretation of INA § 286(m), this provision has historically been construed as a “permanent, indefinite appropriation” of funds for USCIS to operate its adjudication functions through user fees. This is confirmed by the White House and USCIS in guidance offered during the 2013 government shutdown. The requirement in INA § 286(m) that “adjudication fees” be designated “in regulations” by the Attorney General (now USCIS, since the passage of the Homeland Security Act) is satisfied by regulations found at 8 CFR § 103.7 (b)(1)(i)(C)(Biometric Fee of $85), 8 CFR § 103.7 (b)(1)(M)(3)(Application for Advance Parole [international travel permission] fee of $360), 8 CFR § 103.7 (b)(1)(HH)(Application for an Employment Authorization Document fee of $380), and 8 CFR §274a.12(c)(14) (allowing issuance of an Employment Authorization Document to persons granted deferred action).
So as USCIS readies itself to accept a flood of new applications for deferred action, and work and travel permits, the agency has already announced that the affected class would not be allowed to file their applications until later in 2015, and must wait even longer before final action is taken:
Q4: How long will applicants have to wait for a decision on their application?
A4: The timeframe for completing this new pending workload depends on a variety of factors. USCIS will be working to process applications as expeditiously as possible while maintaining program integrity and customer service. Our aim is to complete all applications received by the end of next year before the end of 2016, consistent with our target processing time of completing review of applications within approximately one year of receipt. In addition, USCIS will provide each applicant with notification of receipt of their application within 60 days of receiving it. (Emphasis added.)
Another executive action approved by the White House — one that can be implemented relatively quickly — is the formation of an “Interagency Working Group for the Consistent Enforcement of Federal Labor, Employment and Immigration Laws.” Headed by the Labor Department, the group will include the National Labor Relations Board, the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission and the Departments of Justice and Homeland Security. Presumably, the Justice Department’s role will be filled by the Office of Special Counsel for Unfair Immigration Related Employment Practices, and Homeland Security’s participation will likely be led by U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement and its unit, Homeland Security Investigations.
Unlike the newly-announced but slow-to-arrive immigration benefits for the undocumented, the working group can conceivably be up and running and start enforcing immigration and employment law sanctions at America’s worksites as quickly as the ink is dry on any updates to cross-memoranda of understanding (MOUs) between and among the group’s members, such as the December 7, 2011 Revised Memorandum of Understanding between the Departments of Homeland Security and Labor Concerning Enforcement Activities at Worksites and the MOU between DOJ and the NLRB.
There’s an obvious problem, however, with the slow grant of work permits to the undocumented and the much quicker enforcement of worksite violations. The President did not announce a deferral of enforcement of the Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986 — the Reagan era law and later amendments which sanction businesses that employ workers whom the employer knows lack employment authorization (IRCA’s § 101) or who commit unlawful acts of immigration-related discrimination (IRCA’s § 102). It did not even issue a memo similar to the agency guidance offered in 2001 which gave employers a hint of modest relief when sponsoring undocumented workers for labor certification to gain “245(i)” benefits under the LIFE Act. Thus, employers are still at risk if they become aware that any undocumented workers are planning to apply, or have applied, for benefits under the new executive actions on immigration.
Imagine the scene at the company lunchroom. A group of obviously jovial workers are huddled together at a table filling out USCIS applications for benefits under the DACA (Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals) or DAPA (Deferred Action for Parental Accountability) program. Bert Busybody, the director of HR, walks by and asks them why they are so gleeful. In unison, they reply, “because President Obama is allowing us to work legally.” Arguably, these workers must now be terminated from employment since Bert, as a supervisory representative of the employer, seems to have actual knowledge of the workers’ unauthorized status.
This type of worksite disharmony can be avoided if USCIS and the Homeland Security Department take appropriate action right away. As my colleague, Tony Weigel, has suggested to me, the Secretary of Homeland Security, Jeh Johnson, has authority to resolve this dilemma and allow interim employment authorization while USCIS adjudicates applications for deferred action and three-year work permits. The Secretary could merely hold that the issuance by USCIS of a receipt for a non-frivolous (meaning “patently without substance”) request for deferred action and work permission would constitute an interim document of employment authorization (say, with only six months’ validity) and a List C document for I-9 purposes under the following regulation:
8 C.F.R. § 274a.12(a) Aliens authorized employment incident to status. Pursuant to the statutory or regulatory reference cited, the following classes of aliens are authorized to be employed in the United States without restrictions as to location or type of employment as a condition of their admission or subsequent change to one of the indicated classes. Any alien who is within a class of aliens described in paragraphs . . . (a)(10)-(a)(15) . . . of this section, and who seeks to be employed in the United States, must apply to U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) for a document evidencing such employment authorization. USCIS may, in its discretion, determine the validity period assigned to any document issued evidencing an alien’s authorization to work in the United States. . . . .
8 C.F.R. § 274a.12(a)(11) An alien whose enforced departure from the United States has been deferred in accordance with a directive from the President of the United States to the Secretary. Employment is authorized for the period of time and under the conditions established by the Secretary pursuant to the Presidential directive.
There is abundant precedent for such a flexible approach in situations where the government is not in a position to grant work authorization quickly. For example, because USCIS cannot speedily confer new grants of employment authorization to certain beneficiaries, e.g., holders of Temporary Protected Status (whose work permits are extended merely by publication of a notice in the Federal Register [see Form M-274, "Handbook for Employers," pp. 13-14]), and conditional permanent residents who are allowed to work based on issuance of a receipt while awaiting an adjudication of a petition requesting the removal of conditions on residence under the marriage-based green card provisions or the EB-5 immigrant investor category.
If this flexible solution is adopted, the only remaining problem is the gap period from now until the date when USCIS is ready to allow filing of new immigration-benefits requests by the undocumented who believe they qualify under President Obama’s executive actions. The solution can be found in an embrace of the President’s sentiments espoused on November 20th:
Scripture tells us that we shall not oppress a stranger, for we know the heart of a stranger — we were strangers once, too. My fellow Americans, we are and always will be a nation of immigrants. We were strangers once, too.
Thus, under the same abundant legal authority for prosecutorial discretion that the White House Office of Legal Counsel and a bevy of legal scholars confirmed, the Secretary of Homeland Security should announce a temporary, six-month deferral of enforcement of employer sanctions arising under IRCA § 101 (INA § 274A; 8 U.S. Code § 1324a) – the provision punishing I-9 paperwork violations and the employment of persons whom the employer knows lack work permission — with exceptions for human traffickers and felonious harborers under INA § 274 (8 U.S. Code § 1324a) .
Having spoken so eloquently about “the determination of immigrant fathers [and presumably, mothers] who worked two or three jobs without taking a dime from the government, and at risk any moment of losing it all, just to build a better life for their kids,” the President should take the next step and offer real-world, flexible solutions to IRCA-induced workplace disharmony, measures that would avoid financially endangering families by government-mandated terminations of employment as they prepare to “come out of the shadows and get right with the law.”
Updated 12-04-2014 at 03:00 PM by APaparelli
By Angelo A. Paparelli on November 17, 2014
Posted in Congress on Immigration, Constitutional Law, Democrats on Immigration, General Immigration, GOP on Immigration, Homeland Security, Immigration Reform, Obama Administration on Immigration
In the 1997 film, Liar Liar, Jim Carrey starred as Fletcher Reede, a scruples-free lawyer whose young son, Max, wishes that, for just one day, his dad would tell the truth. Max’s wish is granted. Fletcher flips from mendacity to veracity. He tries persistently to lie; his Silly-Putty® face contorts wildly, but he can only blurt out truths. Hilarity ensues, life lessons are learned, and the Reede family lives blissfully ever after.
Fast forward to Washington DC, November 2014. Young Max, now a manly Millennial, remorseful for having sat out the mid-term elections, and disgusted with the politicians’ threats and counter-threats on immigration, makes a new wish: For just one day, one Republican (John Boehner) and one Democrat (Barack Obama) must only speak the truth. The wish is granted. The usual round of press conferences and TV appearances are held, and questions are asked of President Obama and House Speaker John Boehner.
Mr. President, you’ve said that, given the failure of Congress to enact immigration reforms, you will use the full extent of your legal authority and take executive actions before the end of the year to fix our nation’s immigration system. What specific actions will you take?
Before I answer that, let me admit a few things. I promised to push for immigration reform during my first year in office, but didn’t. I blamed Congress for failing to enact immigration reforms, while claiming that I lacked authority to disregard the laws on the books. Hoping to show Republicans that I could be tough on immigration, I became the “Deporter in Chief.” But then, a few months before the last Presidential election, I did what I said I could not do and authorized the Homeland Security Department to roll out a program for Dreamers known as DACA (Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals). That move brought out Latino voters in droves and may well have been the proximate cause of my reelection. Pressed by immigration activists to stop breaking up families by deporting parents, I asked the Secretary of Homeland Security to study alternatives. Then I deferred action on his report, and then I deferred executive action in the summer, and deferred again in the fall at the behest of endangered Democrats who worried that they’d be trounced in the mid-terms. It didn’t matter. They were trounced anyway, and I’m now facing a Congress controlled by the GOP. So having learned that I must talk truth on immigration, here’s what I’m going to do very soon.
I’ll order reforms that allow a quarter- to a half-million undocumented to receive work and travel permits (except for recent arrivals, hardened criminals and terrorists). I’ll authorize measures that will speed up — ever so slowly — the immigrant visa backlog. I may allow early filing of employment-based green card applications. This would grant professional and skilled foreign workers and their families work and travel permission sooner than now. But they’ll still be stuck in the waiting line just as long and won’t get green cards until their visa numbers are current. I could recapture 600,000 or more immigrant visa numbers that my own and previous administrations squandered by not using them before the end of each fiscal year. I could say that spouses and kids would not be counted in the employment-based green card quota. I could make USCIS stop denying benefits to people on technicalities or imagined grounds of ineligibility. I haven’t decided on these yet.
Of course, I’ll describe these executive actions as generous within the bounds of the law. I know that I’ll be accused of having bypassed the Republican Congress on immigration reform. Some in the media will say it’s ”Caesarism” or “caudillismo.” But others will come to my defense. Still, the constitutional law professor in me worries that I may be going too far, and that some future Republican president will use my action as precedent to ignore the Constitution and take the country off a cliff.
Mr. Speaker, last summer when unaccompanied minors were streaming across our borders you spoke of the “numerous steps the President can and should be taking right now, without the need for Congressional action, to secure our borders and ensure these children are returned swiftly and safely to their countries.” More recently you said that if the President pursues unilateral executive action on immigration, he’ll be “playing with fire, and when you play with fire, you get burned.” So executive action is right when you agree with it and wrong when you don’t. Which is it?
Well obviously executive action is right when a Republican holds the presidency and wrong when it’s held by a Democrat, especially Barack Obama.
Yes, I’ve used incendiary language about “executive amnesty” but I’ve been no less flamboyant and no less insincere than others in my party. Republican National Committee Chair Reince Priebus called executive action by the President on immigration ”a nuclear threat” and said it would be like “throwing a barrel of kerosene on a fire.” But don’t believe him. He’s the same old Reince who suggested after our 2012 loss that comprehensive immigration reform must be embraced, that is, until the Tea Party caucus set him straight. I also liked the whopper Mitch McConnell lobbed when he said he’d “naïvely hoped the President would look at the results of the election and decide to come to the political center and do some business with us.” Mitch is never naïve. He knows that the election proved nothing because we offered no agenda to govern. Mitch and I both know how much we need to show the public that Republicans — when we control Congress — can pass meaningful legislation. We know we can’t be seen as the party of “just say no.” If we got immigration behind us, we could “do business” with the President on taxes, trade, energy and other issues that our rich donors demand.
So, when President Obama takes executive action on immigration, as I’m sure he will, the Tea Party wing of the GOP will have conniption fits. Many of them will accuse him of impeachable acts. He needn’t worry. His executive actions are no more aggressive than other Presidents, including Republicans. These are by no means “high crimes and misdemeanors.”
We will also threaten to sue him, but we know that won’t work. The courts won’t recognize the standing of members of Congress to challenge his enforcement discretion. We will threaten to hold up approval of Loretta Lynch, his pick for Attorney General, but she’ll get through because the Democrats can exercise the nuclear option and prevent a filibuster.
We’ll also threaten to use the budget process to starve his immigration agency, U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services, of the funds needed to issue work and travel permits to the undocumented. He need not be worried. Although it could lead to a government shutdown, it won’t. Mitch McConnell and I are too savvy for that. We know that the public blamed the GOP for the last shutdown, and will likely do it again. In any case, USCIS is mostly funded by user fees which applicants for benefits must pay. So a budget standoff will not work.
But the biggest lie of all is when I said recently that “[it's] time for the Congress of the United States to deal with [immigration]“. I could resolve this problem easily if I weren’t so fearful of the flack I’d get from the Tea Party and Fox News. I could disregard the Hastert rule and just call up the Senate comprehensive immigration reform bill, S. 744, for a vote. Despite the election, there are still enough House votes to pass it. It actually is the smart thing to do. It might be the first step toward showing the growing demographic of Hispanic, youth and single female voters that we’re not just a party of older white, mostly male voters. It might allow our 2016 presidential candidates to jump the “blue wall.” Truth be told, however, I won’t bring S. 744 up for a vote. Pretense and posturing is so much easier than leadership and governing. I’ve got to go now, because I’m getting all weepy — for myself and my missing spine.
* * *
Well Max got his wish and two seasoned pols told the truth for a day. Does it change anything? Not really; we know these truths to be self-evident. The ultimate truth is that howsoever President Obama’s executive actions and the Republicans’ reactions on immigration play out, the American people must stand up and hold our “leaders” accountable to fix our dysfunctional immigration system through well-conceived legislation.
May 18, 2014
[Blogger's note: An anonymous immigration lawyer offers this lament on the woeful quality of adjudications at U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS). For related wailing, see: “ 'I Hate [Bleep]ing Immigration Law’ — Whenever I Get an Unjust Request for Evidence,” “End the Tyranny of Immigration Insubordination,” and “Immigration Indifference – The Adjudicator’s Curse.”]
Dear Immigration Colleagues:
On my doctor’s advice, I am considering changing careers. Like perhaps many of you, helping clients overcome unreasoned decisions and ludicrous requests for evidence year in and year out has taken its toll on my blood pressure. The quality of adjudications by USCIS seems to be declining even further, unfortunately, and I figure now is the time to get out while I am still living.
A string of recent O-1 RFEs [Requests for Evidence], and NOIDs [Notices of Intent to Deny] from the USCIS California Service Center reveal a new disturbing trend. The best and brightest, including the very STEM PhDs to whom the Senate and much of the House would essentially just give green cards, now find themselves in the crosshairs of the USCIS such that they are being prevented from even coming to work, or continuing to work, temporarily. We just recently received a Notice of Intent Deny, for example, for the fifth O-1 extension for the CEO and founder of a very successful U.S. technology company.
Unfortunately, the example above is not a one-off training issue, despite what the USCIS brass might say when they read this piece ( I will be sending it to them). We have confirmed with other colleagues that O-1 petitions filed for top notch STEM PhDs, supported by voluminous awards, recommendations, patents, and publications are being stopped in their tracks, and told that such evidence does not show that they meet any of the O-1 criteria. Do these government officials know that these are the guys whom just about everybody in Congress agrees we should actually be encouraging to come here? Shouldn’t this general understanding of our policy inform officers’ discretion in these matters? Where is the disconnect between us, our duly elected officials, and the officers adjudicating these cases?
Bureaucrats like the one who is intent on denying our client’s case can have a profoundly negative impact on peoples’ businesses and lives, not to mention the U.S. economy as a whole. Sometimes, this can be fixed. The impact on an attorney’s health year after year, however, may not be reversible. That is why I figure it is time leave. Of the many careers I have considered, I have thought about becoming a screenwriter of spy thrillers. Dealing in fiction, where no one actually gets hurt by rogue government officials, would seem to be a better way to live a longer, healthier life. Before I make the leap, I wanted to share with you my pitch for one screenplay idea. It is a sequel to one of the early James Bond thrillers, with a science fiction twist (Please be gentle in your criticism. My nerves are a bit weak these days).
Here it is:
Title: Dr. No vs. the League of Extraordinary Aliens
Dr. No is back, and this time he is ready to do some real damage. He, and his evil “Culture of No” agents, have infiltrated the elite government sub-department responsible for bringing the “League of Extraordinary Aliens” to earth. Members of the League comes to us from far off planets like, Europater, and Asiater, and use their super powers to help solve Earth’s biggest problems, like economic stagnation, global warming, and low quality Hollywood entertainment.
In reality, Dr. No has never left. He and his agents have operated their secret organization, SPECTRE [Society to Prevent Economic, Cultural and Technological Revitalization and Enhancement] from deep beneath a dark and ominous missile factory somewhere in Orange County. They have lurked in the shadows, sporadically attacking international business, and technological innovation to serve what could only be their ultimate goal: returning society to the Middle Ages. Now they are going all out. SPECTRE has managed to turn its weapons, the RFE explosive device and NOID blaster, on our last hope for progress, the League of Extraordinary Aliens. Even that most righteous protector of the League, Ombuds Man, is rendered powerless in the face of SPECTRE’s firepower. …
That is as far as I have gotten with the screenplay. I still need help coming up with an ending, and am having a hard time imaging a happy one. I look forward to your ideas.
This post originally appeared on The Nation of Immigrators on May 18th. Reprinted with permission.
Updated 05-19-2014 at 04:45 PM by APaparelli