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I-9 E-Verify Immigration Compliance


  1. DOL Cites Another Win for Trump’s Hire American Executive Order

    By: Bruce Buchanan, Sebelist Buchanan Law

    The U.S. Department of Labor’s Wage and Hour Division (WHD) has debarred Christopher Lee Smith, owner of Christopher Lee Smith Farms in Glasgow, Kentucky, from applying for certification to request temporary foreign workers under the H-2A agricultural worker visa program for three years. WHD also assessed the employer a $35,755 civil penalty for violating the labor provisions of the H-2A program and found Smith owed $58,820 in back wages to 14 employees.

    The DOL investigation found Smith violated the requirements of the H-2A visa program by failing to reimburse foreign workers for their transportation expenses to and from their home countries, as the law requires; failing to reimburse employees for expenses related to obtaining their visas; failing to keep required time and pay records; failing to pay employees their wages when due; and failing to pay the required minimum wage to H-2A visa workers, as required by law.

    And in a continuing trend with each resolution of an immigration-related case by a federal agency, the DOL pointed to safeguarding American jobs pursuant to Trump’s Buy American, Hire American Executive Order. Specifically, Karen Garnett, Wage and Hour Division District Director in Louisville, said “This case demonstrates our commitment to safeguard American jobs, level the playing field for law-abiding employers, and protect vulnerable workers from being paid less than they are legally owed.”

    The H-2A temporary agricultural program establishes a means for agricultural employers, who anticipate a shortage of domestic workers, to bring non-immigrant foreign workers to the U.S. to perform agricultural labor or services of a temporary or seasonal nature.

  2. DOJ Settles Case Under U.S. Workers Initiative

    By: Bruce Buchanan, Sebelist Buchanan Law PLLC

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    Immigrant and Employee Rights Section (IER) of Department of Justice (DOJ) and Crop Production Services Inc. (Crop Production), an agricultural company headquartered in Loveland, Colorado, reached a settlement agreement. The settlement resolves a lawsuit the IER filed against the company on September 28, 2017, alleging the company discriminated against U.S. citizens because of a preference for foreign visa workers, in violation of the Immigration and Nationality Act (INA).

    The settlement is part of the DOJ’s Protecting U.S. Workers Initiative, an initiative aimed at targeting, investigating, and bringing enforcement actions against companies that discriminate against U.S. workers in favor of foreign visa workers.

    The lawsuit alleged that in 2016, Crop Production discriminated against at least three United States citizens by refusing to employ them as seasonal technicians at its El Campo, Texas location because the company preferred to employ temporary foreign workers under the H-2A visa program. According to the complaint, Crop Production imposed more burdensome requirements on U.S. citizens than it did on H-2A visa workers to discourage U.S. citizens from working at the facility. For instance, the complaint alleges that although U.S. citizens had to complete a background check and a drug test before being permitted to start work, H-2A visa workers were allowed to begin working without completing them and, in some cases, never completed them. Ultimately, all of Crop Production’s 15 available seasonal technician jobs in 2016 went to H-2A visa workers instead of U.S. workers. For more information on the lawsuit, see my prior blog entry at

    Under the INA, it is unlawful for employers to intentionally discriminate against U.S. workers because of their citizenship status or to otherwise favor the employment of temporary foreign visa workers over available, qualified U.S. workers. In addition, the H-2A visa program allows employers to hire foreign visa workers only if there is not enough qualified and available U.S. workers to fill the jobs.

    The settlement agreement requires Crop Production to pay civil penalties of $10,500 to the United States; undergo department-provided training on the anti-discrimination provision of the INA; revise employment policies to assure that Crop Production does not discriminate on the basis of citizenship, and clarify that H-2A visa holders may only be hired in the absence of any qualified and available U.S. workers; and comply with departmental monitoring and reporting requirements for a two-year period. In a separate agreement with workers represented by Texas RioGrande Legal Aid, Crop Production agreed to pay $18,738.75 in lost wages to affected U.S. workers.

    For answers to many other questions related to employer immigration compliance, I invite you to read my new book, The I-9 and E-Verify Handbook, which is available at
  3. OCAHO issues Penalty to Employer for Discrimination

    By Bruce Buchanan

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    After previously finding that Estopy Farms discriminated against a U.S. citizen in favor of individuals with H-2A visas, the Office of Chief Administrative Hearing Officer (OCAHO) issued the employer the maximum penalty of $3,200. See U.S. v. Estopy Farms, 11 OCAHO no. 1256 (2015).

    Estopy Farms, which is in the business of harvesting cotton, sought employment of non-immigrant workers to perform agricultural labor - “cotton machine operators” - of a temporary nature through the H-2A program. An employer must receive a certification from the U.S. Department of Labor, that there are insufficient American workers to perform the work, and it may not reject individuals based on criteria not listed on the original petition or job order.

    Enrique Romero, a U.S. citizen, applied for the job and had 14 years experience in operating agricultural equipment. Romero was not hired; instead, all of the employees hired were H-2A visa holders. In its prior decision, OCAHO found Estopy Farms discriminated against Romero.

    In the present matter, the Office of Special Counsel (OSC) sought the maximum penalty of $3,200 because the employer knew the law from prior use of H-2A visas, was uncooperative, and “committed an egregious statutory violation that resulted in significant harm.” Although the statute does not specify factors to consider in assessing the penalty, case law has considered the following factors: the egregiousness of the violations, the harm resulting from the discrimination, the employer’s resistance to OSC’s investigation, noncompliance with court orders, and the employer’s familiarity with the law involved.

    OCAHO agreed with OSC’s assessment; accordingly, OCAHO assessed the maximum penalty of $3,200 and issued a cease and desist order.

    This decision shows the cost of violating the law in attempting to bypass U.S. citizens in the operation of an H-2A program. It is important to retain qualified immigration counsel when seeking employees through the H-2A program.

  4. Employer Discrimination Against U.S. Citizen

    By Bruce E. Buchanan

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    An employer discriminated against a U.S. citizen and favored individuals with an H-2A visa, according to OCAHO’s decision in U.S. v. Estopy Farms, 11 OCAHO no. 1252 (2015).

    Estopy Farms sought employment of non-immigrant worker to perform agricultural labor of a temporary nature. In order to hire individuals under the H-2A program, an employer must receive a certification from the U.S. Department of Labor (DOL), that there are insufficient American workers to perform the work. For the DOL to issue such a certification, an employer must advertise the positions and may not reject individuals based on criteria not listed on the original petition or job order.

    In this case, Estopy Farms, which in the business of harvesting cotton, filed a request to hire 14 H-2A workers as “cotton machine operators.” The request did not include any requirement that the applicants have prior experience.

    Enrique Romero, a U.S. citizen, applied for the job and had 14 years experience in operating agricultural equipment. Romero appeared to have been hired at his interview in that he was informed that he would be informed of the job’s start date. Despite calling Estopy Farms on several occasions, Romero was not hired; instead all the employees hired were H-2A visa holders.

    After filing a charge with the Office of Special Counsel for Immigration – Related Unfair Employment Practices (OSC), Romero was granted permission by the OSC to file a complaint with OCAHO alleging citizenship discrimination. The OSC intervened in the case before OCAHO. Interestingly, Romero settled a similar case filed in federal district court and moved that his OCAHO compliant be dismissed. OCAHO granted that order but OSC decided it wanted to pursue the OCAHO case as “guardian of the public interest.”

    In its defense, Estopy Farms stated it failed to hire Romero because he did not have any experience operating “cotton picker harvester machines.” However, Estopy Farms’ advertisement did not include the need for prior experience or certain qualifications. At least two of the H-2A visa holders hired did not have any prior experience.

    Based on the facts and Estopy Farms providing a series of “shifting, inconsistent, and mutually contradictory explanations” concerning why it failed to hire Romero, OCAHO found Estopy Farms’ defenses were pretextual. OCAHO further found Estopy Farms discriminated against a qualified U.S. citizen in favor of hiring H-2A workers. The amount of civil penalties will be decided in further proceedings.

    This decision shows that if one advertises for workers, it must make its hiring decisions based on the advertisement’s requirements, not on other factors. In this case, it appears Estopy Farms only wanted to hire H-2A visa holders and created reasons not to hire non-H-2A visa holders.
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